A Review of Enamel Remineralisation Potential of Calcium- and Phosphate-based Remineralisation Systems.

Research paper by Manikandan M Ekambaram, Siti N B SNB Mohd Said, Cynthia K Y CKY Yiu

Indexed on: 09 Aug '17Published on: 09 Aug '17Published in: Oral health & preventive dentistry


Along with calcium and phosphate ions, fluoride ions promote remineralisation of noncavitated carious lesions to form fluorapatite. However, the supply of calcium and phosphate ions from saliva may not be adequate for effective remineralisation in patients with high caries risk. Therefore, an additional supply of calcium and phosphate ions is mandatory to enhance effective remineralisation with fluoride ions. Several calcium- and phosphate-based remineralisation agents are available for clinical use. However, the nature of the incorporated calcium and phosphate ions and the method of their stabilisation are not similar. Therefore, this review summarises research findings on the enamel remineralisation potential of calcium- and phosphate-based remineralisation agents.Appropriate key words were used and the Pubmed electronic database was searched to retrieve articles. Screening through titles and abstracts identified relevant articles. Full text review of the identified relevant articles was performed and the significant findings were summarised and presented in this review.Several studies including laboratory-based studies, in situ and randomised controlled clinical trials showed casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP)-containing remineralisation agents to have superior remineralisation potential compared to other forms of calcium- and phosphate-based remineralisation agents, such as functionalised tri-calcium phosphate (fTCP) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP).More long-term clinical studies are necessary to compare the enamel remineralisation potential of calcium- and phosphate-based agents that contain fTCP and ACP with those containing CPP-ACP. Additional well-designed randomised controlled clinical trials are also necessary to justify long-term clinical supplemental use of products containing CPP-ACP.