A rare case of malignant-phase hypertension with pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage.

Research paper by Kazutaka K Nanba, Kensei K Yahata, Yuko Y Kikuchi, Chinatsu C Okamoto, Koichi K Seta, Akira A Sugawara

Indexed on: 01 Feb '11Published on: 01 Feb '11Published in: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology


Malignant-phase hypertension is characterized clinically by severe accelerating hypertension with neuroretinopathy or papilledema and by evidence of renal damage. A Japanese male in his early thirties presented with hemoptysis and general fatigue. He had a 5-year history of hypertension, but had not received any treatment. His blood pressure was 290/150 mmHg and his serum creatinine level was 8.24 mg/dL. Chest X-rays and computed tomography scans of the chest revealed a pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage. He was suspected of having vasculitis syndrome or Goodpasture's syndrome, but his renal biopsy specimen showed malignant nephrosclerosis. Myeloperoxidase antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA), proteinase-3 ANCA and antiglomerular basement membrane antibody were negative. He was treated with a calcium antagonist and a β-blocker, followed by an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. After the administration of the β-blocker, his blood pressure decreased and his renal function gradually improved. This is a rare case of malignant-phase hypertension with pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage; this condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis in order to avoid unnecessary treatment such as immunosuppressive therapy.