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A Perspective on Hydrogen Near the Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition and Metallization of Fluid H.

Research paper by W J WJ Nellis

Indexed on: 17 Aug '21Published on: 17 Aug '21Published in: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters



Abstract

Metallic hydrogen has been a major issue in physical chemistry since its prediction in 1935. Its predicted density implies 100 GPa (10 bar = Mbar) pressures are needed to make metallic H with the Fermi temperature = 220 000 K. Temperatures can be several 1000 K and still be "very low" with / ≪ 1. In 1996, metallic fluid H was made under dynamic compression at = 140 GPa and calculated ≈ 3000 K generated with a two-stage light-gas gun. Those 's place metallic H in the liquid-liquid phase transition region. The purpose of this Perspective is to place the phase curve measured in laser-heated diamond anvil cells in context with those measured electrical conductivities. That phase curve is probably caused by dissociation of H to H starting near 90 GPa/1600 K. Metallic H then forms in a crossover as a semiconductor up to 140 GPa/3000 K. Dynamic quasi-isentropic pressure was tuned to make metallic H by design in those conductivity experiments.