Indexed on: 31 Dec '16Published on: 31 Dec '16Published in: Toxins
Spider venoms are a complex mixture of peptides with a large number of neurotoxins targeting ion channels. Although thousands of peptide toxins have been identified from venoms of numerous species of spiders, many unknown species urgently need to be investigated. In this study, a novel sodium channel inhibitor, µ-TRTX-Hl1a, was identified from the venom of Haplopelma lividum. It contained eight cysteines and formed a conserved cysteine pattern of ICK motif. µ-TRTX-Hl1a inhibited the TTX-resistant (TTX-r) sodium channel current rather than the TTX-sensitive (TTX-s) sodium channel current. Meanwhile, µ-TRTX-Hl1a selectively inhibited NaV1.8 with an IC50 value of 2.19 μM. Intraperitoneal injection of µ-TRTX-Hl1a dose-dependently reduced inflammatory and neuropathic pain in rodent models of formalin-induced paw licking, tail-flicking, acetic acid-induced writhing, and hot plate test. It showed a better analgesic effect than morphine in inflammatory pain and equipotent effect to morphine in neuropathic pain. These findings demonstrate that µ-TRTX-Hl1a might be a valuable tool for physiology studies on NaV1.8 and a promising lead molecule for pain therapeutics.