Indexed on: 23 Nov '19Published on: 22 Nov '19Published in: Scientific Reports
A real-time, nondestructive, Bragg-diffracted electron beam energy, energy-spread and spatial-pointing jitter monitor is experimentally verified by encoding the electron beam energy and spatial-pointing jitter information into the mega-electron-volt ultrafast electron diffraction pattern. The shot-to-shot fluctuation of the diffraction pattern is then decomposed to two basic modes, i.e., the distance between the Bragg peaks as well as its variation (radial mode) and the overall lateral shift of the whole pattern (drift mode). Since these two modes are completely decoupled, the Bragg-diffraction method can simultaneously measure the shot-to-shot energy fluctuation from the radial mode with 2·10 precision and spatial-pointing jitter from the drift mode having wide measurement span covering energy jitter range from 10 to 10. The key advantage of this method is that it allows us to extract the electron beam energy spread concurrently with the ongoing experiment and enables online optimization of the electron beam especially for future high charge single-shot ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and ultrafast electron microscopy (UEM) experiments. Furthermore, real-time energy measurement enables the filtering process to remove off-energy shots, improving the resolution of time-resolved UED. As a result, this method can be applied to the entire UED user community, beyond the traditional electron beam diagnostics of accelerators used by accelerator physicists.