Indexed on: 31 Aug '00Published on: 31 Aug '00Published in: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
The neuropeptide control of gonadotropin secretion at the level of the anterior pituitary gland is primarily through the stimulatory action of the hypothalamic decapeptide, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which was originally isolated from mammals and subsequently from non-mammals. To date, however, an inhibitory peptide of gonadotropin release is unknown in vertebrates. Here we show, in a bird, that the hypothalamus also contains a novel peptide which inhibits gonadotropin release. Acetic acid extracts of quail brains were passed through C-18 reversed-phase cartridges, and then the retained material was subjected to the reversed-phase and cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The peptide was isolated from avian brain and shown to have the sequence Ser-Ile-Lys-Pro-Ser-Ala-Tyr-Leu-Pro-Leu-Arg-Phe-NH(2). Cell bodies and terminals containing this peptide were localized immunohistochemically in the paraventricular nucleus and median eminence, respectively. This peptide inhibited, in a dose-related way, gonadotropin release from cultured quail anterior pituitaries. This is the first hypothalamic peptide inhibiting gonadotropin release reported in a vertebrate. We therefore term it gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH).