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A multibiomarker approach highlights effects induced by the human pharmaceutical gemfibrozil to gilthead seabream Sparus aurata

Research paper by A. Barreto, L.G. Luis; P. Paíga; L.H.M.L.M. Santos; C. Delerue-Matos; A.M.V.M. Soares; K. Hylland; S. Loureiro; M. Oliveira

Indexed on: 01 Jun '18Published on: 28 May '18Published in: Aquatic Toxicology



Abstract

Publication date: July 2018 Source:Aquatic Toxicology, Volume 200 Author(s): A. Barreto, L.G. Luis, P. Paíga, L.H.M.L.M. Santos, C. Delerue-Matos, A.M.V.M. Soares, K. Hylland, S. Loureiro, M. Oliveira Lipid regulators are among the most prescribed human pharmaceuticals worldwide. Gemfibrozil, which belongs to this class of pharmaceuticals, is one of the most frequently encountered in the aquatic environment. However, there is limited information concerning the mechanisms involved in gemfibrozil effects to aquatic organisms, particularly to marine organisms. Based on this knowledge gap, the current study aimed to assess biochemical and behavioral effects following a sublethal exposure to gemfibrozil (1.5, 15, 150, 1500 and 15,000 μg L−1) in the estuarine/marine fish Sparus aurata. After the exposure to 1.5 μg L−1 of gemfibrozil, fish had reduced ability to swim against a water flow and increased lipid peroxidation in the liver. At concentrations between 15–15,000 μg L−1, the activities of some enzymes involved in antioxidant defense were induced, appearing to be sufficient to prevent oxidative damage. Depending on the organ, different responses to gemfibrozil were displayed, with enzymes like catalase being more stimulated in gills, whereas glutathione peroxidase was more activated in liver. Although there were no obvious concentration-response relationships, the integrated biomarker response version 2 (IBRv2) analysis revealed that the highest concentrations of gemfibrozil (between 150–15,000 μg L−1) caused more alterations. All the tested concentrations of gemfibrozil induced effects in S. aurata, in terms of behavior and/or oxidative stress responses. Oxidative damage was found at a concentration that is considered environmentally relevant, suggesting a potential of this pharmaceutical to impact fish populations. Graphical abstract