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A cluster randomized trial of sun protection at elementary schools. Results from year 2.

Research paper by Richard G RG Roetzheim, Kymia M KM Love-Jackson, Seft G SG Hunter, Ji-Hyun JH Lee, Ren R Chen, Rania R Abdulla, Kristen J KJ Wells

Indexed on: 22 Nov '11Published on: 22 Nov '11Published in: American Journal of Preventive Medicine



Abstract

Elementary schools are one potential venue for sun protection interventions that reduce childhood sun exposure.To assess Year-2 results from a cluster randomized trial promoting hat use at schools.Block randomization was used to assign intervention/control status to participating schools. Data were collected from 2006 to 2008 and analyzed in 2007-2010.Of the 24 schools in the School District of Hillsborough County, Florida enrolled, 4th-graders were targeted in the first year and followed through their 5th-grade year.Classroom sessions were conducted to improve sun protection knowledge, foster more positive attitudes about hat use, and change the subjective norm of wearing hats when at school.Year-2 outcomes assessed included hat use at school (measured by direct observation), hat use outside of school (measured by self-report) and skin pigmentation and nevi counts (measured for a subgroup of 439 students).The percentage of students observed wearing hats at control schools remained unchanged during the 2-year period (range 0%-2%) but increased significantly at intervention schools (2% at baseline, 41% at end of Year 1, 19% at end of Year 2; p<0.001 for intervention effect). Measures of skin pigmentation, nevi counts, and self-reported use of hats outside of school did not change during the study period.This intervention increased use of hats at school through Year 2 but had no measurable effect on skin pigmentation or nevi. Whether school-based interventions can ultimately prevent skin cancer is uncertain.